• Introduction
  • A Measure Suited for Your School
  • Measures of Child Wellbeing
  • Measures of Child Wellbeing at School
  • Measures of Adult Wellbeing
  • Measures of Adult Wellbeing at Work
  • Measures of Cultural Wellbeing
  • Other Resources
  • Download
  • Translations
  • The Psychological Sense of School Membership (PSSM) (Adapted)

    This measure is for childrenThis is a free measure

    Since its creation in 1993, The Psychological Sense of School Membership has been widely used to measure students’ sense of belonging at school. An adapted version of this measure, specifically modified to be developmentally appropriate for younger students, is the focus of this section.  This version has 18 items appropriate for students Age 8 and older. Rather than statements, the items are in the form of questions: For example, “‘Are teachers interested in students like you?” (Wagle et al., 2018, p. 574). Students rank each question on a 6-point Likert scale ranging from yes to no. This version has been tested with over 2,500 students in the United States, United Kingdom, and China.

    Pros for Schools

    Cons for Schools

    Widely used
    Focus version specifically adapted for larger age range of students
    Several additional variations available
    Multiple translations available


    Suggestions for Further Research

    Goodenow, C. (1993). The psychological sense of school membership among adolescents: Scale development and educational correlates. Psychology in the Schools, 30, 79–90. https://edtechbooks.org/-PGj

    Wagle, R., Dowdy, E., Yang, C., Palikara, O., Castro, S., Nylund-Gibson, K., & Furlong, M. J. (2018). Preliminary investigation of the psychological sense of school membership scale with primary school students in a cross-cultural context. School Psychology International, 39(6), 568–586. https://doi.org/ 10.1177/0143034318803670

    This content is provided to you freely by BYU Open Learning Network.

    Access it online or download it at https://open.byu.edu/wellbeing/PSSM.