CoverAcknowledgementsIntroductionList of AuthorsAuthor IndexI. Definitions and History1. The Proper Way to Become an Instructional Technologist2. What Is This Thing Called Instructional Design?3. History of LIDT4. A Short History of the Learning Sciences5. LIDT Timeline6. Programmed Instruction7. Edgar Dale and the Cone of Experience8. Twenty Years of EdTechII. Learning and Instruction9. Memory10. Intelligence11. Behaviorism, Cognitivism, Constructivism12. Sociocultural Perspectives of Learning13. Learning Communities14. Communities of Innovation15. Motivation Theories and Instructional Design16. Motivation Theories on Learning17. Informal Learning18. Overview of Problem-Based Learning19. Connectivism20. An Instructional Theory for the Post-Industrial Age21. Using the First Principles of Instruction to Make Instruction Effective, Efficient, and EngagingIII. Design22. Instructional Design Models23. Design Thinking and Agile Design24. What and how do designers design?25. The Development of Design-Based Research26. A Survey of Educational Change Models27. Performance Technology28. Defining and Differentiating the Makerspace29. User Experience DesignIV. Technology and Media30. United States National Educational Technology Plan31. Technology Integration in Schools32. K-12 Technology Frameworks33. What Is Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge?34. The Learner-Centered Paradigm of Education35. Distance Learning36. Old Concerns with New Distance Education Research37. Open Educational Resources38. The Value of Serious Play39. Video Games and the Future of Learning40. Educational Data Mining and Learning Analytics41. Opportunities and Challenges with Digital Open BadgesV. Becoming an LIDT Professional42. The Moral Dimensions of Instructional Design43. Creating an Intentional Web Presence44. Where Should Educational Technologists Publish Their Research?45. Rigor, Influence, and Prestige in Academic Publishing46. Educational Technology Conferences47. Networking at Conferences48. PIDT, the Important Unconference for AcademicsVI. Preparing for an LIDT Career49. What Are the Skills of an Instructional Designer?50. Careers in Academia: The Secret Handshake51. Careers in K-12 Education52. Careers in Museum Learning53. Careers in ConsultingFinal Reading AssignmentIndex of Topics
Foundations of Learning and Instructional Design Technology

II. Learning and Instruction

Many of the activities that LIDT professionals engage in are also completed by other professionals, such as web designers, curriculum writers, multimedia developers, and teachers. A powerful difference for LIDT professionals is our understanding of learning and instructional theory, and our efforts to apply these theories to our LIDT practice. For this reason, understanding what psychology and science can teach us about how people learn, and how good instruction is provided, is critical to any effective LIDT professional. The chapters in this section serve only as a basic starting ground to your pursuit of understanding in this area. You will learn about how the mind works and remembers information, and emotional factors in learning such as motivation and self-efficacy. I have included a classic article by Peg Ertmer and Tim Newby on the "Big 3" learning theories of behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism and a new chapter on sociocultural learning theories which extend beyond the Big 3. Included are a few chapters on more recent theoretical developments in the areas of informal learning, internet-based learning (connectivism), learning communities, and creative learning. Finally, two chapters are included on instructional theory from Charles Reigeluth, who edited several editions of the book Instructional-Design Theories and Models and David Merrill, whose First Principles of Instruction summary of basic instructional principles is perhaps the most well known of instructional frameworks in our field.

Additional Reading

An excellent resource to supplement your reading of learning theories in this section is the newly released How People Learn book, available for free online.


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