Reflection Model

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Personal Voice

Speaks in a personal, introspective voice, rather than making dispassionate, clinical observations. This first-person “I” voice is maintained throughout the reflection, in all of the other components, revealing the thoughts, feelings, personality, and character of the writer.

Knowledge: Intellectual Component

Includes an intellectual component revealed by the writer’s access to a vocabulary of theories, concepts, and ideas from his theme-based coursework. In exploring his understanding of the concepts, ideas, or theories, the writer is able to discuss his experience in a new light, grapple with the consequences or implications of those ideas, articulate an emotional response, and raise new questions.

Experience: Cases, Stories, and Examples

Provides details, cases, stories, and examples derived from the writer’s personal observations and experiences in particular contexts. The stories are about moments of personal growth, insight, and change, and they demonstrate a willingness on the part of the writer to examine his own personality and character.

Emotion: Affect or Emotional Response

Reveals the writer’s affect or emotional response to his or her personal observations and experiences. An emotional response is communicated as the writer explores his understanding of and response to the intellectual component, his experience, and/or the connections between them and the insights and change that emerge.

Questions: New Questions and Issues

Posits issues and new questions which grow out of the writer’s analysis of personal experiences and understanding of concepts, ideas, or theories. The authenticity of the questions is revealed in what the writer says throughout the reflection, and the questions clearly motivate or drive future inquiry and learning.


Stefinee E. Pinnegar

Brigham Young University

A St. George native, Dr. Pinnegar graduated from Dixie College (now DSU) and Southern Utah State (now SUU). She taught on the Navajo Reservation then completed an M.A. in English at BYU. She taught for 5 years in Crawfordsville, Indiana. She then completed a PhD in Educational Psychology at the University of Arizona (1989). She was faculty at Western Michigan University in Kalamazoo, before coming to BYU. She helped develop and now directs the TELL program. She is Acting Dean of Invisible College for Research on Teaching, a research organization that meets yearly in conjunction with AERA. She is a specialty editor of Frontiers in Education's Teacher Education strand with Ramona Cutri. She is editor of the series Advancements in Research on Teaching published by Emerald Insight. She has received the Benjamin Cluff Jr. award for research and the Sponsored Research Award from ORCA at BYU. She is a founder of the Self-Study of Teacher Education Practices research methdology. She has published in the Journal of Teacher Education, Ed Researcher, Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice and has contributed to the handbook of narrative inquiry, two international handbooks of teacher education and two Self-Study of Teaching and Teacher Education Practices handbooks. She reviews for numerous journals and presents regularly at the American Educational Research Association, ISATT, and the Castle Conference sponsored by S-STTEP.

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