CoverAcknowledgements1. Language and Identity1.1. What Is a Speech Community?1.2. Coercive vs. Collaborative Relations1.3. Language Minority Stories2. Who Are English Learners?2.1. Reflection Model2.2. Inclusive Pedagogy2.2. Makoto Critical Incident2.3. Assumptions to Rethink about English Learners2.4. Critical Learning Domains3. Understanding Theory3.1. Communication, Pattern, and Variability 3.2. Five Curriculum Guidelines3.3. Indicators of Instructional Conversation (IC)3.4. Indicators of the Standards for Effective Pedagogy3.5. Standards for Effective Pedagogy3.6. Examining Current Realities4. Input4.1. Input and Native Language Acquisition4.2. Input and Second Language Acquisition4.3. The Interdependence Hypothesis4.4. The Threshold Hypothesis4.5. Vocabulary Development and Language Transfer4.6. Text Modification5. Interaction5.1. Code Switching and Interaction5.2. Characteristics of Modifications for Interaction5.3. How Can Teachers Help Second Language Learners Begin to Communicate?5.4. Classroom Routines and Participation Structures5.5. We Can Talk: Cooperative Learning in the Elementary ESL Classroom6. Stages of Development6.1. Proficiency Levels Defined7. Errors and Feedback7.1. Points to Remember About Errors7.2. Effective and Appropriate Feedback for English Learners8. Types of Proficiencies8.1. Fostering Second Language Development in Young Children8.2. Instructional Conversation in Native American Classroom 8.3. Student Motivation to Learn8.4. Language Learning Strategies: An Update8.5. Three Misconceptions about Age and L2 Learning9. Types of Performances9.1. Understanding BICS and CALP9.2. The Order of Acquisition and The Order of Use9.3. Schumann's Acculturation Model9.4. Implications From the Threshold and Interdependence Hypotheses9.5. Lily Wong Fillmore’s Cognitive and Social Strategies for Second Language Learners10. Classroom Practices and Language AcquisitionIndex

Reflection Model

Reflection Model.png

Personal Voice

Speaks in a personal, introspective voice, rather than making dispassionate, clinical observations. This first-person “I” voice is maintained throughout the reflection, in all of the other components, revealing the thoughts, feelings, personality, and character of the writer.

Knowledge: Intellectual Component

Includes an intellectual component revealed by the writer’s access to a vocabulary of theories, concepts, and ideas from his theme-based coursework. In exploring his understanding of the concepts, ideas, or theories, the writer is able to discuss his experience in a new light, grapple with the consequences or implications of those ideas, articulate an emotional response, and raise new questions.

Experience: Cases, Stories, and Examples

Provides details, cases, stories, and examples derived from the writer’s personal observations and experiences in particular contexts. The stories are about moments of personal growth, insight, and change, and they demonstrate a willingness on the part of the writer to examine his own personality and character.

Emotion: Affect or Emotional Response

Reveals the writer’s affect or emotional response to his or her personal observations and experiences. An emotional response is communicated as the writer explores his understanding of and response to the intellectual component, his experience, and/or the connections between them and the insights and change that emerge.

Questions: New Questions and Issues

Posits issues and new questions which grow out of the writer’s analysis of personal experiences and understanding of concepts, ideas, or theories. The authenticity of the questions is revealed in what the writer says throughout the reflection, and the questions clearly motivate or drive future inquiry and learning.


Suggested Citation

(2019). Reflection Model. In , Principles of Language Acquisition. EdTech Books. Retrieved from

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