a hierarchy of assessment that evaluates the level of students' understanding with the lowest level being "remembering," and then progressing upward through "understanding," "applying," "analyzing," and "evaluating," with "creating" being the highest level.
the amount of communication cues that are present, e.g., low fidelity is mostly text-based with no communication cues and high fidelity has many communication cues such as tone of voice, facial expressions, and body language.
he four core competency areas used in this book to organize blended teaching knowledge and skills: (1) Online Integration, (2) Data Practices, (3) Personalizing Instruction, and (4) Online Interaction.
system of mindsets and practices that allows teachers to increase a student's chance of engaging with learning materials, mastering learning materials, and applying learning materials to the real world based upon the student's own interests, wants, and goals. This system has an emphasis on customization (tailoring/customizing the learning experience to the individual student's needs and interests) and student control (giving students some element of control over their learning goals, time, place, pace, and path).
used to determine the students' relationship to technology (passive, interactive, or creative) and whether their use of technology replaces, amplifies, or transforms traditional activities and classroom practices.
a framework for evaluating the relationship between online or technology-based and traditional offline activities as well as classroom environments:
Replaces an activity (R): technology is used to make an activity more efficient or accessible, but the activity itself does not change in any meaningful way.
Amplifies an activity (A): technology allows the teacher or students to do the same activity with some improvements that would be difficult or impossible without technology, such as receiving immediate feedback.
Transforms an activity (T): technology is used to reimagine the learning activity and to do something completely different that would be difficult or impossible without technology, such as communicating with people outside of the classroom.
Replaces the classroom (R): technology allows a class meeting to take place online without having to come to the same location, such as the brick and mortar school.
Amplifies the classroom (A): technology provides more class time for activities that the teacher wouldn't normally have time for, such as doing a lab, mock debate, or writer's workshop.
Transforms the classroom (T): technology has become the primary method for delivering instruction, resulting in a great change of roles for teachers.
when it is more important to see students’ screens than their faces, have the students turn their backs to the teacher, but when it is time for face-to-face instruction, have the students turn around to face the teacher.
measurable and verifiable knowledge, skills, abilities, and/or attitudes that students should obtain by the end of a unit, program, or project. These generally make up larger standards or general instructional objectives.