Index

Atom 524Matter 82Space 59

Atom

Introduction

  1. … water as comprising two hydrogen Atoms and one oxygen Atom, and the explanation…
  2. … entities such as molecules and Atoms (see Figure 1.5 (b)).

Matter

  1. … may be possible for the same Atoms to be arranged in different ways: Compounds…
  2. … suggestion that matter is composed of Atoms is attributed to the Greek philosophers…
  3. … consist of discrete, individual Atoms, some exist as molecules made up of…
  4. … the molecules differ in how the Atoms are connected to each other. There are…
  5. … symbols to indicate the types of Atoms followed by subscripts to show the…
  6. … molecular formula; it represents a diAtomic molecule of hydrogen, consisting…
  7. … (Figure 2.23) contains two carbon Atoms, four hydrogen Atoms, and two oxygen…
  8. … indicate the actual numbers of Atoms of each element in a molecule of the…
  9. … involves a rearrangement of the Atoms in water molecules into different molecules,…
  10. … which indicates the types of Atoms present and the simplest whole-number ratio…
  11. … find collections of individual Atoms. Only a few elements, such as the gases…
  12. An Atom is the smallest particle of an element that has the properties of that…
  13. … insight and are correct. Two C Atoms, four H Atoms, and two O Atoms can also…
  14. An Atom is so small that its size is difficult to imagine. One of the smallest…
  15. … formula (the types and numbers of Atoms in the molecule) but also shows how…
  16. An Atom is so light that its mass is also difficult to imagine. A billion lead…
  17. Atoms and Molecules
  18. … sulfur is composed of eight sulfur Atoms and is therefore written as S8. It…
  19. … molecules consisting of two or more Atoms of the same element. The compounds…
  20. … space-filling model. Carbon and hydrogen Atoms are represented by black and…
  21. … relative orientations of the Atoms in space. (credit bottom left: modification…
  22. … b: modification of work by “Atoma”/Wikimedia Commons)
  23. … Each sphere represents one gold Atom. (credit a: modification of work by United…
  24. … ratio of 1 to 2. The titanium Atoms are gray and the oxygen Atoms are red.…
  25. … optical microscope); and (d and e) Atomic-level models of the fiber (spheres…

The Atom

  1. … on the Latin word(s) for its Atomic number. For example, element 106 was called…
  2. This can be explained by Atomic theory if the copper-to-chlorine ratio in the…
  3. Atoms are electrically neutral if they contain the same number of positively…
  4. … might notice that the sum of an Atom’s subAtomic particles does not equal…
  5. Atoms—and the protons, neutrons, and electrons that compose them—are extremely…
  6. … occurring isotopes of elements with Atomic numbers 1 through 10 is given in…
  7. … element symbol (Figure 4.13). The Atomic number is sometimes written as a…
  8. Use this simulation to build Atoms of the first 10 elements, see which isotopes…
  9. If matter is composed of Atoms, what are Atoms composed of? Are they the smallest…
  10. … to indicate an element or an Atom of an element. For example, the symbol for…
  11. … attract); they are less massive than Atoms and indistinguishable, regardless…
  12. … iodine deficiency. The iodine Atoms are added as anions, and each has a 1−…
  13. … several common elements and their Atoms are listed in Table 4.3. Some symbols…
  14. … between a “plum pudding” Atom and a Rutherford Atom by firing α particles…
  15. … particles passed through the gold Atoms undeflected, they must have traveled…
  16. … matter could be explained using an Atomic theory. First published in 1807,…
  17. … any of Dalton’s postulates: Atoms are neither created nor destroyed, but…
  18. … to propose a model in which an Atom consists of a very small, positively charged…
  19. Atomic charge = number of protons − number of electrons
  20. … almost all of the mass of an Atom, with the number of protons only providing…
  21. The development of modern Atomic theory revealed much about the inner structure…
  22. … finite particles that they called Atomos, a term derived from the Greek word…
  23. … protons in the nucleus of an Atom is its Atomic number (Z). This is the defining…
  24. … suggestion that the numbers of Atoms of the elements in a given compound always…
  25. … product), despite having a different Atomic mass. This result, along with…
  26. … development in understanding the Atom came from Ernest Rutherford, a physicist…
  27. … be discussed in more detail, Atoms (and molecules) typically acquire charge…
  28. Dalton’s Atomic theory provides a microscopic explanation of the many macroscopic…
  29. … had now established that the Atom was not indivisible as Dalton had believed,…
  30. 4.2 Evolution of Atomic Theory
  31. 4.3 Atomic Structure and Symbolism
  32. 4.1 Early Ideas in Atomic Theory
  33. Composition of an Atom
  34. Testing Dalton’s Atomic Theory
  35. (a) Thomson suggested that Atoms resembled plum pudding, an English dessert…
  36. If an Atom could be expanded to the size of a football stadium, the nucleus…
  37. The symbol for an Atom indicates the element via its usual two-letter symbol,…
  38. … approximately 3 ×× 1022 copper Atoms (several dozen are represented as brown…
  39. Nuclear Compositions of Atoms of the Very Light Elements
  40. … small compared to the size of an Atom, very few α particles are deflected.…
  41. Properties of SubAtomic Particles
  42. … as red spheres) react, their Atoms rearrange to form a compound containing…
  43. … amount; it could represent one Atom of mercury or a large amount of mercury.
  44. … the combination of two types of Atoms—copper (brown spheres) and oxygen…
  45. … (b) has twice as many chlorine Atoms per copper Atom. (credit a: modification…

Periodic Table

  1. … understand that no single boron Atom weighs exactly 10.8 amu; 10.8 amu is…
  2. … compounds that consist of one Atom of the element and one Atom of hydrogen.…
  3. The average mass of a neon Atom in the solar wind is 20.15 amu. (The average…
  4. … periodic relationship involved Atomic numbers rather than Atomic masses. The…
  5. … have noticed something about the Atomic masses of some of the elements. Element…
  6. … oxygen in a ratio of two of their Atoms to one oxygen Atom, whereas Ca, Sr,…
  7. … arranged according to increasing Atomic mass. But Mendeleev went one step…
  8. … table or listed in a table of Atomic masses is a weighted, average mass of…
  9. … isotopes: About 19.9% of all boron Atoms are 10B with a mass of 10.0129 amu,…
  10. … beam that causes the sample’s Atoms (or molecules) to become electrically…
  11. … approximately one amu to the mass of an Atom, and each electron contributes…
  12. … gain experience with average Atomic mass, and check naturally occurring isotope…
  13. 5.1 Atomic Mass
  14. Calculation of Average Atomic Mass

Moles & Mass

  1. … numerically equivalent to its Atomic or formula weight in amu. Per the amu…
  2. … chemistry. For example, Dalton’s Atomic theory was an attempt to explain…
  3. 4.586 ×× 1022 Au Atoms
  4. … of neutral sodium and chlorine Atoms were used in this computation, rather…
  5. … defined not only by the types of Atoms or ions it contains, but by the quantity…
  6. … system, including research on the anAtomy and physiology of the brain. Great…
  7. … element contains the same number of Atoms as 1 mole of any other element.…
  8. … moles and calculate number of Atoms or molecules in the sample. Likewise,…
  9. … molecule contains seven carbon Atoms, and so the number of C Atoms in the…
  10. … represents the numbers and types of Atoms composing a single molecule of the…
  11. … compounds: by summing the average Atomic masses of all the Atoms in the compound’s…
  12. … molecule, C9H8O4, is the sum of the Atomic masses of nine carbon Atoms, eight…
  13. … molecules C4 H10; 9.545 ×× 1023 Atoms H
  14. While Atomic mass and molar mass are numerically equivalent, keep in mind that…
  15. … reasonable estimate for the number of Atoms in the sample would be on the…
  16. … of saccharin? How many carbon Atoms are in the same sample?
  17. … specific measure of the number of Atoms or molecules in a sample of matter.…
  18. … described the development of the Atomic mass unit, the concept of average…
  19. Deriving Number of Atoms from Mass for an Element
  20. Deriving the Number of Atoms and Molecules from the Mass of a Compound
  21. … wire is composed of many, many Atoms of Cu. (credit: Emilian Robert Vicol)
  22. … which is the sum of the average Atomic masses of each of its constituent Atoms.…
  23. … sample contains 6.022 ×× 1023 Atoms —1.00 mol of Atoms. From left to right…

Light

  1. … of the electronic structure of Atoms and molecules. The simplest example of…
  2. … energies of electrons within Atoms and molecules. Much of modern technology…
  3. … comparable to the spaces between Atoms in a crystalline solid, X-rays are…

Blackbody Radiation, Photoelectric Effect

  1. … needed to assume the vibrating Atoms required quantized energies, which he…
  2. … based on the premise that the Atoms composing the oven vibrated at increasing…
  3. … that increase the energy of an Atom involve the absorption of light and are…

Atomic Spectra, Bohr Model

  1. … Thus, the electron in a hydrogen Atom usually moves in the n = 1 orbit, the…
  2. … discrete lines for the hydrogen Atom were found in the UV and IR regions.…
  3. … broken apart into separate H Atoms and we see a blue-pink color. Passing the…
  4. … Bohr attempted to resolve the Atomic paradox by ignoring classical electromagnetism’s…
  5. … levels for an electron in an Atom. As a consequence, the model laid the foundation…
  6. … photoelectric effect, and the hydrogen Atom), and all involving Planck’s…
  7. … twentieth century, the picture of Atoms consisting of tiny dense nuclei surrounded…
  8. The Atomic number, Z, of hydrogen is 1; k = 2.179 ×× 10–18 J; and the electron…
  9. Bohr’s model of the hydrogen Atom provides insight into the behavior of matter…
  10. … circular orbits for hydrogen-like Atoms are given in terms of their radii…
  11. … it is held less tightly in the Atom. Note that as n gets larger and the orbits…
  12. … charges, and so one-electron Atoms and ions are collectively referred to as…
  13. … concerned the light emitted from Atoms and molecules. When solids, liquids,…
  14. … origin of discrete spectra in Atoms and molecules was extremely puzzling to…
  15. … the Bohr model of the hydrogen Atom, and the vertical arrows depict the energy…
  16. … hydrogen, calcium, and mercury Atoms.
  17. … and energy levels in a hydrogen Atom. The more negative the calculated value,…

Orbitals & Quantum Numbers

  1. … particle (such as an electron in an Atom), ψ is the wavefunction of this…
  2. … wavelengths of its constituent Atoms and molecules, which, while much larger…
  3. … travelling through a regular Atomic pattern in a crystal. The regularly spaced…
  4. … described previously, electrons in Atoms can exist only on discrete energy…
  5. … to characterize an orbital. An Atomic orbital is a general region in an Atom
  6. … ml, are properties of specific Atomic orbitals that also define in what part…
  7. … variables. For example, when an Atom absorbs a photon and makes a transition…
  8. … that the electron in a hydrogen Atom could be better thought of as being a…
  9. … where electrons reside in an Atom can be used to look at electronic transitions,…
  10. … orbitals (location of electrons in Atoms), their different energies, and other…
  11. … of the diameter of a hydrogen Atom), then our determination of its momentum…
  12. … the energy of an electron in an Atom is greater for greater values of n. This…
  13. … experimental data for the hydrogen Atom and was widely accepted, but it also…
  14. … of magnitude as the size of an Atom. This means that electron wavelike behavior…
  15. An electron in an Atom is completely described by four quantum numbers: n,…
  16. … Any electron, regardless of the Atomic orbital it is located in, can only…
  17. … ml. In the case of a hydrogen Atom or a one-electron ion (such as He+, Li2+,…
  18. … quantum numbers of electrons in Atoms are briefly summarized in Table 10.1.
  19. … occupying the same orbital in an Atom. A spectral line corresponding to a…
  20. … Quantum Theory of Electrons in Atoms
  21. … Quantum–Mechanical Model of an Atom
  22. … orbitals in a multi-electron Atom.

Electron Configurations

  1. The alkali metal sodium (Atomic number 11) has one more electron than the neon…
  2. … table, the alkali metal potassium (Atomic number 19), we might expect that…
  3. An Atom of the alkaline earth metal beryllium, with an Atomic number of 4,…
  4. … well before any idea of their Atomic structure was available. Now we can understand…
  5. … alkaline earth metal magnesium (Atomic number 12), with its 12 electrons in…
  6. An Atom of boron (Atomic number 5) contains five electrons. The n = 1 shell…
  7. The energy of Atomic orbitals increases as the principal quantum number, n,…
  8. Electrons in successive Atoms on the periodic table tend to fill low-energy…
  9. Ions are formed when Atoms gain or lose electrons. A cation (positively charged…
  10. … noble gas helium, which has an Atomic number of 2. The helium Atom contains…
  11. Nitrogen (Atomic number 7) fills the 1s and 2s subshells and has one electron…
  12. … the configuration of the helium Atom, which is identical to that of the filled…
  13. The next Atom is the alkali metal lithium with an Atomic number of 3. The first…
  14. Having introduced the basics of Atomic structure and quantum mechanics, we…
  15. Carbon (Atomic number 6) has six electrons. Four of them fill the 1s and 2s…
  16. … occur. For example, niobium (Nb, Atomic number 41) is predicted to have the…
  17. … earlier, the periodic table arranges Atoms based on increasing Atomic number…
  18. … electrons in the orbitals of an Atom is called the electron configuration…
  19. … elements as well as that for Atoms of each of the known elements.
  20. … configuration for any particular Atom, we can “build” the structures in…
  21. … the transition metal scandium (Atomic number 21), additional electrons are…
  22. … completely filled in a helium Atom.
  23. … transition metals chromium (Cr; Atomic number 24) and copper (Cu; Atomic number…
  24. … orbital diagram for a selection of Atoms in the first and second periods of…
  25. 11.1 Electronic Structure of Atoms (Electron Configurations)
  26. Orbital Energies and Atomic Structure
  27. … depicts the energy order for Atomic orbitals and is useful for deriving ground-state…
  28. Generalized energy-level diagram for Atomic orbitals in an Atom with two or…
  29. … for the valence subshells of Atoms. By “building up” from hydrogen, this…

Periodic Trends

  1. … removing an electron from a neutral Atom because of the greater electrostatic…
  2. … counterintuitive because it implies that Atoms with more electrons have a…
  3. … the metallic character of the Atoms increases. Oxygen, at the top of group…
  4. … They are (1) size (radius) of Atoms and ions, (2) ionization energies, and…
  5. … discussed in this section (size of Atoms and ions, effective nuclear charge,…
  6. … electrons to the valence shell of an Atom. This results in a greater repulsion…
  7. Atoms and ions that have the same electron configuration are said to be isoelectronic.…
  8. … is released when the gaseous Atom accepts an electron. However, for some elements,…
  9. … adding an electron to a gaseous Atom to form an anion (negative ion).
  10. … bound electron from a gaseous Atom in its ground state is called its first…
  11. … first ionization energy and the Atomic number of several elements. The values…
  12. … establish a definite size of an Atom. However, there are several practical…
  13. … number of protons as the parent Atom; it is smaller than the Atom from which…
  14. We also might expect the Atom at the top of each group to have the most negative…
  15. … an electron across a series of Atoms as the effective nuclear charge of the…
  16. … required to remove electrons from Atoms or ions, so ionization processes are…
  17. … of the periodic table showing Atomic size or graphs of ionization energies…
  18. Sorting Atomic Radii
  19. … periods are plotted against their Atomic number.
  20. (a) The radius of an Atom is defined as one-half the distance between the nuclei…
  21. … cation is smaller than the parent Atom (Al), due to the lost electrons; the…
  22. Within each period, the trend in Atomic radius decreases as Z increases; for…

Bonding

  1. … molecules forms from two moles of H Atoms:
  2. … the attractive forces that hold Atoms or ions together within a compound is…
  3. … the first to be lost when these Atoms ionize. When the inner transition metals…
  4. Most monAtomic anions form when a neutral nonmetal Atom gains enough electrons…
  5. … Bi5+, a partial loss of these Atoms’ valence shell electrons can also lead…
  6. As you have learned, ions are Atoms or molecules bearing an electrical charge.…
  7. … bond is to consider the types of Atoms involved and their relative positions…
  8. … exceptions. For example, the H and F Atoms in HF have an electronegativity…
  9. … covalent and ionic bonds. The Atoms in polyAtomic ions, such as OH–, NO3−,NO3−,…
  10. … by a property of the bonding Atoms called electronegativity. Electronegativity…
  11. … from this figure because these Atoms usually do not share electrons with others…
  12. … hydrogen molecules and cause the Atoms to separate:
  13. When forming a cation, an Atom of a main group element tends to lose all of…
  14. … possibility of full d subshells in Atoms of elements in the fourth and greater…
  15. … the periodic table. Nonmetal Atoms have relatively high electron affinities…
  16. Neutral Atoms and their associated ions have very different physical and chemical…
  17. When an element composed of Atoms that readily lose electrons (a metal) reacts…
  18. … electrons around each individual Atom consists of six nonbonding electrons…
  19. In the case of Cl2, each Atom starts off with seven valence electrons, and…
  20. … between metallic and nonmetallic Atoms. A different type of bonding results…
  21. … electronegativity (ΔEN) of two bonded Atoms provides a rough measure of the…
  22. … metal, and carbonate is a polyAtomic ion; Li2CO3 is predicted to be ionic.
  23. … absorbed when an isolated gas-phase Atom acquires an electron, measured in…
  24. Nonmetal Atoms frequently form covalent bonds with other nonmetal Atoms. For…
  25. When Atoms of nonmetal elements form ions, they generally gain enough electrons…
  26. … reactions, the nucleus of each Atom (and thus the identity of the element)…
  27. … a system for naming some polyAtomic ions; -ate and -ite are suffixes designating…
  28. … designate the positive and negative Atoms in a polar covalent bond using a…
  29. … (covalent compounds) result when Atoms share, rather than transfer (gain or…
  30. When the Atoms linked by a covalent bond are different, the bonding electrons…
  31. Many ionic compounds contain polyAtomic ions (Table 13.1) as the cation, the…
  32. … periodic table to predict whether an Atom will form an anion or a cation,…
  33. … compounds containing only monAtomic ions (such as NaCl) and for many compounds…
  34. … negative ions (anions). A nitrogen Atom must gain three electrons to have…
  35. … discussed so far are called monAtomic ions, that is, they are ions formed…
  36. If the Atoms that form a covalent bond are identical, as in H2, Cl2, and other…
  37. … Formula of a Compound with a PolyAtomic Anion
  38. … energy of two separate hydrogen Atoms (right) decreases as they approach each…
  39. Common PolyAtomic Ions
  40. The Atoms in sodium chloride (common table salt) are arranged to (a) maximize…
  41. (a) A sodium Atom (Na) has equal numbers of protons and electrons (11) and…
  42. … difference increases between two Atoms, the bond becomes more ionic.

Nomenclature

  1. When only one Atom of the first element is present, the prefix mono- is usually…
  2. … ionic compounds containing polyAtomic ions, and one specific, very important…
  3. … (variable charge)? Are the ions monAtomic or polyAtomic? If the compound is…
  4. … the combination ratios of the Atoms in a molecule, the names for molecular…
  5. … prefixes to specify the numbers of Atoms of each element. The name of the…
  6. … binary compound containing monAtomic ions consists of the name of the cation…
  7. … hydrogen combined with a polyAtomic, oxygen-containing ion. To name oxyacids:
  8. Compounds containing polyAtomic ions are named similarly to those containing…
  9. Compounds Containing PolyAtomic Ions
  10. Compounds Containing Only MonAtomic Ions
  11. … often present in water as the polyAtomic ions chromate, CrO42−CrO42− (left),…

Lewis Structures Part 1

  1. … molecules that contain central Atoms that do not have a filled valence shell.…
  2. … electrons on the constituent Atoms. See these examples:
  3. … molecule: one single bond between Atoms and three lone pairs of electrons…
  4. … covalent molecules have central Atoms that do not have eight electrons in…
  5. … the formation of cations from Atoms, as shown here for sodium and calcium:
  6. An Atom like the boron Atom in BF3, which does not have eight electrons, is…
  7. … types of bonds that form between Atoms and/or ions. In all cases, these bonds…
  8. The number of bonds that an Atom can form can often be predicted from the number…
  9. … five valence electrons in the Atomic Lewis symbol: one lone pair and three…
  10. … the formation of anions from Atoms, as shown here for chlorine and sulfur:
  11. … structure indicates that each Cl Atom has three pairs of electrons that are…
  12. … called a single bond. Each Cl Atom interacts with eight valence electrons:…
  13. … pairs are shared by a pair of Atoms, as in carbon monoxide (CO) and the cyanide…
  14. … pairs of electrons with other Atoms because they have empty d orbitals in…
  15. … the valence shells of the outer Atoms with eight electrons. These additional…
  16. … previously mentioned, when a pair of Atoms shares one pair of electrons, we…
  17. … bonding in molecules and polyAtomic ions. For example, when two chlorine Atoms…
  18. … valence electron configurations of Atoms and monAtomic ions. A Lewis symbol…
  19. … the outer shell of the central Atom are lone pairs:
  20. … molecules (C60) contain only carbon Atoms (left) arranged to form a geometric…
  21. Cations are formed when Atoms lose electrons, represented by fewer Lewis dots,…
  22. In PCl5, the central Atom phosphorus shares five pairs of electrons. In SF6,…

Lewis Structures Part 2

  1. The formal charge of an Atom in a molecule is the hypothetical charge the Atom
  2. N: 0; all three Cl Atoms: 0
  3. … structures for molecules and polyAtomic ions. As we have seen, however, in…
  4. … different. A double bond between two Atoms is shorter (and stronger) than…
  5. … However, the first arrangement of Atoms is preferred because it has the lowest…
  6. … formal charge calculated for an Atom is not the actual charge of the Atom
  7. … ion, an ion formed from a carbon Atom, a nitrogen Atom, and a sulfur Atom,…
  8. … with the same arrangement of Atoms can be written for a molecule or ion, the…
  9. The number of Atoms with formal charges are minimized (Guideline 2), there…
  10. … structure with a terminal oxygen Atom best satisfies the criteria for the…
  11. … that the less electronegative Atom typically occupies the central position,…
  12. One oxygen Atom must have a double bond to carbon to complete the octet on…
  13. … of the formal charges of all Atoms in a molecule must be zero; the sum of…
  14. The arrangement of Atoms in a molecule or ion is called its molecular structure.…

Molecular Shape

  1. … two bonds that include a common Atom, usually measured in degrees. A bond…
  2. … electron density around the carbon Atom—each double bond counts as one region,…
  3. When a central Atom has two lone electron pairs and four bonding regions, we…
  4. … opposite sides of the central Atom (Figure 17.12). The five Atoms are all…
  5. Answers will vary. For example, an Atom with four single bonds, a double bond,…
  6. When a molecule or polyAtomic ion has only one central Atom, the molecular…
  7. … electron density around a central Atom in a molecule form a linear geometry;…
  8. … add that group to the central Atom. Once you have the complete molecule, rotate…
  9. … Structure: Lone Pairs on the Central Atom
  10. … electron density around the central Atom, so it has a tetrahedral electron-pair…
  11. … tetrahedral arrangement of the hydrogen Atoms. VSEPR structures like this…
  12. … possible, on opposite sides of the Be Atom.
  13. … includes only the placement of the Atoms in the molecule is called the molecular…
  14. … four bonds from the nitrogen Atom to hydrogen Atoms and no lone pairs. We…
  15. … around the central beryllium Atom. With two bonds and no lone pairs of electrons…
  16. … molecule, the three hydrogen Atoms attached to the central nitrogen are not…
  17. Consider each central Atom independently. The electron-pair geometries:
  18. … electron pairs around the central Atoms including no lone pairs will be trigonal…
  19. … preservative for biological and anAtomical specimens (Figure 17.1). This molecule…
  20. … electron-pair geometry around a central Atom is not the same thing as its…
  21. … to VSEPR theory, the terminal Atom locations (Xs in Figure 17.6) are equivalent…
  22. … bond angles around a central Atom, of a molecule from an examination of the…
  23. … electron pairs around each central Atom and, usually, the correct arrangement…
  24. … electrons around the central carbon Atom; the electron-pair geometry is tetrahedral,…

Polarity

  1. For diAtomic molecules, there is only one bond, so its bond dipole moment determines…
  2. … opposite sides of the carbon Atom. The bond moments cancel because they are…
  3. … from the less electronegative Atom toward the more electronegative Atom. A…
  4. … similar to CO2, but a sulfur Atom has replaced one of the oxygen Atoms. To…
  5. … electronegativities of the bonded Atoms is H < C < Cl, and so the bond moments…
  6. … polar covalent bonds connect two Atoms with differing electronegativities,…

Organic Molecules

  1. … Carbon Single Bonds to other Atoms
  2. … Groups with Single Bonds to HeteroAtoms
  3. … with Multiple Bonds to HeteroAtoms
  4. … abbreviation includes the oxygen Atoms and negative charges associated with…
  5. … haloalkane. The presence of a halogen Atom (F, Cl, Br, or I), is often represented…
  6. … are characterized by nitrogen Atoms with single bonds to hydrogen and carbon.…
  7. In sulfides, the oxygen Atom of an ether has been replaced by a sulfur Atom.
  8. … solely of carbon and hydrogen Atoms. Alkanes are said to be saturated hydrocarbons,…
  9. Functional groups are small groups of Atoms that exhibit a characteristic reactivity.…
  10. … chemistry, and is found as the central Atom in the phosphate group. Many biological…
  11. … on the other side to a heteroAtom (in organic chemistry, this term generally…
  12. … ways. In a ketone, the carbon Atom of a carbonyl is bonded to two other carbons.…

Isomers

  1. … passing through the chlorine Atom and bisecting the opposite carbon-carbon…
  2. … symmetry making it achiral. A carbon Atom that is bonded to four different…
  3. … nonidentical groups on each carbon Atom and exists as both cis and trans…
  4. … chapter are asymmetric carbon Atoms, but it should be recognized that other…
  5. … One of the doubly bonded carbon Atoms does have two different groups attached,…
  6. … is an alkane with five carbon Atoms. It has three constitutional isomers,…
  7. … structural drawings. If the bromine Atom is replaced by another chlorine to…
  8. … alkenes requires that the carbon Atoms of a double bond and the two Atoms…
  9. … in which the two chlorine (Cl) Atoms lie on the same side of the molecule…
  10. … nonidentical groups on each carbon Atom (H and Cl on one and H and Br on…
  11. … molecular formula and the same Atom-to-Atom connectivity, so they are not…

Valence Bond Theory

  1. … electron configuration of an Atom or ion is key to understanding the chemical…
  2. … permanently concentrated more on one Atom than the other. Notice we say Atom,…
  3. … the location of electrons in Atoms and the properties of elements, we can…
  4. … separation of charge between Atoms. It is a simple model when applied to diAtomic…
  5. … Just as important is that some Atoms bond by sharing rather than exchanging…
  6. … two p orbitals from different Atoms; the overlap is greater when the orbitals…
  7. … the 1s orbital of the hydrogen Atoms with the 2p orbitals of the oxygen Atom.…
  8. The sulfur Atom in sulfur hexafluoride, SF6, exhibits sp3d2 hybridization.…
  9. … differences in an isolated Be Atom and in the bonded Be Atom in the orbital…
  10. … methane, CH4, consists of a carbon Atom surrounded by four hydrogen Atoms…
  11. The selenium Atom is sp3d hybridized.
  12. … electrons. For example, the nitrogen Atom in ammonia is surrounded by three…
  13. The sulfur Atom is surrounded by two bonds and one lone pair of electrons in…
  14. … C2H4, shows us that each carbon Atom is surrounded by one other carbon Atom
  15. … trigonal planar, and the boron Atom is involved in three bonds to hydrogen…
  16. … correct hybridization of the Atoms. However, many structures also include…
  17. Thinking in terms of overlapping Atomic orbitals is one way for us to explain…
  18. … determine that each of the carbon Atoms is bonded to three other Atoms with…
  19. … electrons. Thus we say that the oxygen Atom is sp3 hybridized, with two of…
  20. The valence orbitals of an Atom surrounded by a tetrahedral arrangement of…
  21. Any central Atom surrounded by just two regions of valence electron density…
  22. The beryllium Atom in a gaseous BeCl2 molecule is an example of a central Atom
  23. … electrons around the phosphorus Atom) directed toward the corners of a trigonal…
  24. … of each of the four hydrogen Atoms overlaps with one of the four sp3 orbitals…
  25. The carbon Atom is surrounded by three regions of electron density, positioned…
  26. … valence orbitals of a central Atom surrounded by three regions of electron…
  27. When Atomic orbitals hybridize, the valence electrons occupy the newly created…
  28. … the σ bonds from each carbon Atom are formed using a set of sp2 hybrid orbitals…
  29. … unhybridized p orbitals remain on the Atom (Figure 21.23). We find this situation…
  30. … describe the electronic structure of Atoms. We can use quantum mechanics to…
  31. … the energies of two hydrogen Atoms (the colored curve) changes as they approach…
  32. … two π bonds. Between any two Atoms, the first bond formed will always be…
  33. … ethene molecule, the four hydrogen Atoms and the two carbon Atoms are all…
  34. Any central Atom surrounded by three regions of electron density will exhibit…
  35. … in ethane has four neighboring Atoms arranged at the corners of a tetrahedron—three…
  36. … as the overlap of half-filled Atomic orbitals (each containing a single electron)…
  37. … molecules containing small central Atoms, in which the valence electron pairs…
  38. … use five of the valence shell Atomic orbitals (the s orbital, the three p…
  39. The hybridization of an Atom is determined based on the number of regions of…
  40. 21.2 Hybrid Atomic Orbitals
  41. … of Hybrid Orbitals to Central Atoms
  42. Atomic Orbital Overlap
  43. … hybridization in the central Atom and a trigonal bipyramid form. SF4 and ClF4+ClF4+…
  44. The four valence Atomic orbitals from an isolated carbon Atom all hybridize…
  45. … The interaction of two hydrogen Atoms changes as a function of distance. (b)…
  46. Each carbon Atom in benzene, C6H6, is sp2 hybridized, independently of which…
  47. … hybrid orbitals on the carbon Atom with one sp2 hybrid orbital on the other…
  48. … a p orbital (red) of the same Atom produces two sp hybrid orbitals (yellow).…
  49. In ethene, each carbon Atom is sp2 hybridized, and the sp2 orbitals and the…
  50. … with the 1s orbitals of hydrogen Atoms to form the O–H bonds in H2O. This…
  51. … sp hybrid orbitals of a carbon Atom, which lie in a straight line, and the…
  52. … electron-pair geometries. For example, an Atom surrounded by three regions…
  53. In an isolated B Atom, there are one 2s and three 2p valence orbitals. When…
  54. The central Atom(s) in each of the structures shown contain three regions of…
  55. … the 2p orbitals on an oxygen Atom (red) with the 1s orbitals of two hydrogen…

Molecular Orbital Theory

  1. The relative energy levels of Atomic and molecular orbitals are typically shown…
  2. … are assigned to one specific Atom, MO theory uses the combination of Atomic…
  3. … molecules composed of two identical Atoms (H2 or Cl2, for example). Such molecules…
  4. … bond order for each of the diAtomic molecules. As shown in Table 22.2, Be2…
  5. The combination of two lithium Atoms to form a lithium molecule, Li2, is analogous…
  6. … distribution of electrons in Atoms is described using Atomic orbitals. Using…
  7. In the molecular orbitals of diAtomic molecules, each Atom also has two sets…
  8. … bonds formed from degenerate Atomic orbitals. Similarly, in molecular orbital…
  9. … 22.11. All of the other period 2 diAtomic molecules do have s-p mixing, which…
  10. … mathematical process of combining Atomic orbitals to generate molecular orbitals…
  11. A helium Atom has two electrons, both of which are in its 1s orbital. Two helium…
  12. … orbitals (Figure 22.4). If two Atoms are located along the x-axis in a Cartesian…
  13. … form from the overlap of two Atomic s orbitals on adjacent Atoms. The two…
  14. … predict electron configurations of Atoms. Valence electrons are assigned to…
  15. … no bond is formed between two Atoms.
  16. … nuclei and help hold the two Atoms together, making it a bonding orbital.…
  17. … double bond, and each oxygen Atom has eight electrons around it. However,…
  18. … (H2) forms from two hydrogen Atoms. When the Atomic orbitals of the two Atoms…
  19. … animations visualizing the calculated Atomic orbitals combining to form various…
  20. … sample there are a huge number of Atoms (typically > 1023 Atoms), and therefore…
  21. … in the same way that we fill Atomic orbitals, by the Aufbau principle. Lower-energy…
  22. … molecules with more than two Atoms relies on the same basic ideas as the diAtomic…
  23. When two identical Atomic orbitals on different Atoms combine, two molecular…
  24. … pairs of electrons between two Atoms. Thus a single bond has a bond order…
  25. … strength; a bond between two given Atoms becomes stronger as the bond order…
  26. Eight possible homonuclear diAtomic molecules might be formed by the Atoms…
  27. Bonding in DiAtomic Molecules
  28. The DiAtomic Molecules of the Second Period
  29. … lower energy than the separated Atoms.
  30. … formed by the combination of two s Atomic orbitals. The dots (·) indicate…
  31. … diagrams for each homonuclear diAtomic molecule in the second period. The…
  32. … Molecular Orbitals in Homonuclear DiAtomic Molecules of Period Two Elements
  33. … magnetic field is strongest. Other diAtomic molecules (like N2) flow past…
  34. … diagram for the homonuclear diAtomic Be2+,Be2+, showing the molecular orbitals…
  35. Combining wave functions of two p Atomic orbitals along the internuclear axis…

Dalton's Law, Graham's Law, Henry's Law

  1. … during the World War II, at the Atomic energy installation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee,…
  2. … in Figure 25.8). The gaseous Atoms or molecules are, of course, unaware of…
  3. … in a liquid solvent since the Atoms or molecules comprising a gas are far…

Kinetic Molecular Theory, Real Gases

  1. … although some gases are composed of Atomic species, for example, the noble…

Intermolecular Forces

  1. … boiling points with increasing Atomic/molecular size may be rationalized by…
  2. … molecule, the more electronegative Cl Atom bears the partial negative charge,…
  3. … attractive forces between the Atoms, molecules, or ions that make up each…
  4. … attractive forces between neutral Atoms and molecules are known as van der…
  5. Dispersion forces that develop between Atoms in different molecules can attract…
  6. … consist of the same number of Atoms and have approximately the same molecular…
  7. … covalent bonds that hold the Atoms of the individual DNA molecules together.…
  8. … example, the bonds between the Atoms. Intermolecular forces are the attractions…
  9. … molecule contains a hydrogen Atom bonded to a fluorine, oxygen, or nitrogen…
  10. … regardless of the nature of the Atoms or molecules composing the substance.…
  11. … particle will be used to refer to an Atom, molecule, or ion. Note that we…
  12. … illustrated here for two nonpolar diAtomic molecules.

Properties of Water

  1. … cohesive forces between mercury Atoms are much greater than the adhesive forces…
  2. … Chemistry in Context. In Chemistry: Atoms First 2e. OpenStax. https://openstax.org/books/chemistry-Atoms-first-2e/pages/10-2-properties-of-liquids

Applications of IMF

  1. … increase the average energy of its Atoms, molecules, or ions and the solid…

Stoichiometry

  1. … one might first balance C and H Atoms by changing the coefficients for the…
  2. The numbers of H Atoms on the reactant and product sides of the equation are…
  3. … meaning that equal numbers of Atoms for each element involved in the reaction…
  4. … equal numbers of both H and O Atoms on the reactant and product sides, and…
  5. This results in seven O Atoms on the product side of the equation, an odd number—no…
  6. The numbers of N and O Atoms on either side of the equation are now equal,…
  7. Comparing the number of H and O Atoms on either side of this equation confirms…
  8. … Directly measuring numbers of Atoms and molecules is, however, not an easy…
  9. … count the number of each type of Atom present in the unbalanced equation.
  10. … integers without upsetting the Atom balance. For example, consider the reaction…
  11. … balance the number of oxygen Atoms. To balance the number of oxygen Atoms,…
  12. The N Atom balance has been upset by this change; it is restored by changing…
  13. … symbols to represent individual Atoms. When Atoms gain or lose electrons to…
  14. The H Atom balance was upset by this change, but it is easily reestablished…

Limiting Reactants, % Yield

  1. Green Chemistry and Atom Economy
  2. … synthesizing chemical products. The Atom economy of a process is a measure…
  3. … mole (206 g) of ibuprofen, an Atom economy of 40%. In the 1990s, an alternative…
  4. Though the definition of Atom economy at first glance appears very similar…
  5. … steps and exhibits an impressive Atom economy. (credit a: modification of…

% Composition, Empirical Formulas

  1. … may be possible for the same Atoms to be arranged in different ways: Compounds…
  2. … ratio is one carbon to two oxygen Atoms, the empirical formula is CO2.
  3. … subscripts by two, retaining the same Atom ratio and yielding Cl2O7 as the…
  4. … (the sum of 12 amu for one C Atom, 2 amu for two H Atoms, and 16 amu for one…
  5. … mass is the sum of the average Atomic masses of all the Atoms represented…
  6. … from its formula mass and the Atomic masses of its constituent elements. A…
  7. … consist of discrete, individual Atoms, some exist as molecules made up of…
  8. … use of molar masses instead of Atomic and formula masses, as demonstrated…
  9. … the molecules differ in how the Atoms are connected to each other. There are…
  10. … relative numbers, not masses, of Atoms in the substance. Therefore, any experimentally…
  11. … symbols to indicate the types of Atoms followed by subscripts to show the…
  12. … molecular formula; it represents a diAtomic molecule of hydrogen, consisting…
  13. … (Figure 33.6) contains two carbon Atoms, four hydrogen Atoms, and two oxygen…
  14. … indicate the actual numbers of Atoms of each element in a molecule of the…
  15. … which indicates the types of Atoms present and the simplest whole-number ratio…
  16. … insight and are correct. Two C Atoms, four H Atoms, and two O Atoms can also…
  17. … Determining the absolute numbers of Atoms that compose a single molecule of…
  18. … formula (the types and numbers of Atoms in the molecule) but also shows how…
  19. … space-filling model. Carbon and hydrogen Atoms are represented by black and…
  20. … ratio of 1 to 2. The titanium Atoms are gray and the oxygen Atoms are red.…
  21. … relative orientations of the Atoms in space. (credit bottom left: modification…
  22. … sulfur is composed of eight sulfur Atoms and is therefore written as S8. It…

Energy, Heat, and Work

  1. … small pan. More mass means more Atoms are present in the larger pan, so it…
  2. … associated with the random motion of Atoms and molecules. Temperature is a…
  3. … thermal energy) substance (L). The Atoms and molecules in H have a higher…
  4. … when the kinetic energy of its Atoms or molecules is raised. The greater kinetic…
  5. … different temperatures, and their Atoms have different average kinetic energies.…

Enthalpy Part 2

  1. … molecules forms from two moles of H Atoms:
  2. … σ bond between the same two Atoms. In a σ bond, there is a greater degree…
  3. … the energy of the two separated Atoms. This is the quantity of energy released…
  4. … hydrogen molecules and cause the Atoms to separate:
  5. … with the interaction of just two Atoms.
  6. … because covalent bonds hold the Atoms together. We measure the strength of…
  7. … determine the electron affinity of an Atom.
  8. Different interAtomic distances produce different lattice energies. For example,…
  9. … strength describes how strongly each Atom is joined to another Atom, and therefore…
  10. Molecules with three or more Atoms have two or more bonds. The sum of all bond…
  11. … strength of a bond between two Atoms increases as the number of electron pairs…
  12. … energy converts the gaseous cesium Atoms into cations. In the next step, we…
  13. … energy. The bond energy for a diAtomic molecule, DX–Y, is defined as the…
  14. … The interaction of two hydrogen Atoms changes as a function of distance. (b)…
  15. … energy of two separate hydrogen Atoms (right) decreases as they approach each…

Entropy

  1. … phase, in which a given number of Atoms or molecules occupy a much greater…
  2. … the structure of the particles (Atoms or molecules) that comprise the substance.…
  3. … 39.5. In the solid phase, the Atoms or molecules are restricted to nearly…
  4. … possible location for each identical Atom or molecule comprising the crystal…
  5. … locations and energies of the Atoms or molecules that make up a system. The…
  6. … of kinetic energies among the Atoms or molecules of the substance is also…

Climate and Human Impacts

  1. … contains a large number of oxygen Atoms that link parts of the structure together,…

Matter

Introduction

  1. … and describe the behavior of Matter and energy in three different domains: macroscopic,…
  2. What are some changes in Matter that are essential to daily life? Digesting and…
  3. … to understand the behavior of Matter extend back for more than 2500 years. As…
  4. … and use specific components of Matter. A variety of drugs such as aloe, myrrh,…
  5. … people have tried to convert Matter into more useful forms. Our Stone Age ancestors…
  6. … contributions to how to manipulate Matter, it was not scientific by modern standards.…

Matter

  1. A fourth state of Matter, plasma, occurs naturally in the interiors of stars.…
  2. … various major classifications of Matter is shown in (Figure 2.6).
  3. … gases are the three states of Matter commonly found on earth (Figure 2.1). A…
  4. The first suggestion that Matter is composed of atoms is attributed to the Greek…
  5. Matter is defined as anything that occupies space and has mass, and it is all…
  6. Matter can be classified into several categories. Two broad categories are mixtures…
  7. … composed of two or more types of Matter that can be present in varying amounts…
  8. … holds true for all conversions of Matter, convincing examples are few and far…
  9. The change of one type of Matter into another type (or the inability to change)…
  10. … produces one or more types of Matter that differ from the Matter present before…
  11. Properties of Matter fall into one of two categories. If the property depends…
  12. The law of conservation of Matter summarizes many scientific observations about…
  13. … is a measure of the amount of Matter in it. One way to measure an object’s…
  14. … property is a characteristic of Matter that is not associated with a change…
  15. Some samples of Matter appear to have properties of solids, liquids, and/or gases…
  16. … Phases and Classifications of Matter
  17. Classifying Matter
  18. … most common states or phases of Matter are solid, liquid, and gas.

Measurement

  1. … laws describing the behavior of Matter and energy in both the macroscopic and…

The Atom

  1. If Matter is composed of atoms, what are atoms composed of? Are they the smallest…
  2. … Aristotelian view of the composition of Matter held sway for over two thousand…
  3. … discussion of the basic structure of Matter comes from ancient Greek philosophers,…
  4. … many macroscopic properties of Matter that you’ve learned about. For example,…

Moles & Mass

  1. … volumes of bulk quantities of Matter) using relatively simple tools (balances…
  2. … yield electrically neutral bulk Matter. The formula mass for an ionic compound…
  3. … atoms or molecules in a sample of Matter. One Latin connotation for the word…

Light

  1. … energy is transferred through Matter (the rope, water, or air) while the Matter
  2. … restricted to travel through Matter. As Maxwell showed, electromagnetic waves…
  3. … comprising two separate domains: Matter composed of particles moving according…

Atomic Spectra, Bohr Model

  1. … fundamental laws of physics is that Matter is most stable with the lowest possible…
  2. … insight into the behavior of Matter at the microscopic level, but it does not…

Orbitals & Quantum Numbers

  1. … wavelength is only appreciable for Matter that has a very small mass and/or…
  2. … Broglie proposed the wave nature of Matter, two scientists at Bell Laboratories,…
  3. We know how Matter behaves in the macroscopic world—objects that are large…
  4. … 1920s that very small pieces of Matter follow a different set of rules from…
  5. … revise the way they thought about Matter.

Molecular Shape

  1. … rows of the table). It does not Matter which X is replaced with a lone pair…

Organic Molecules

  1. … different. In alcohols, what Matters is how many other carbons the alcohol carbon…

Valence Bond Theory

  1. … understanding the structure of Matter at the atomic level, we can begin to build…
  2. … the liquid and solid states of Matter.
  3. … with increased distance. If all Matter were composed of ions that would be the…

Combined & Ideal Gas Laws

  1. … discovered the law of conservation of Matter, discovered the role of oxygen…

Dalton's Law, Graham's Law, Henry's Law

  1. … reached this limit because, no Matter how long you stir the solution, undissolved…

Intermolecular Forces

  1. … in solid, liquid, and gaseous Matter:
  2. … interactive simulation on states of Matter, phase transitions, and intermolecular…

Applications of IMF

  1. … heat. The relation applies to Matter being heated or cooled, but not undergoing…

Phase Diagrams

  1. … liquid states. This phase of Matter is called a supercritical fluid, and the…
  2. … phases. This unique state of Matter is called a supercritical fluid, a topic…

Stoichiometry

  1. … with the law of conservation of Matter. It may be confirmed by simply summing…

Energy, Heat, and Work

  1. Matter undergoing chemical reactions and physical changes can release or absorb…
  2. … are fossilized plant and animal Matter.
  3. Like Matter, energy comes in different types. One scheme classifies energy into…
  4. … altitude of 5895 m, and it does not Matter whether you hiked there or parachuted…
  5. … thermal energy in a sample of Matter will cause its temperature to increase.…
  6. … to the law of conservation of Matter (seen in an earlier chapter), there is…
  7. … heat capacity (C) of a body of Matter is the quantity of heat (q) it absorbs…
  8. … of the substance is all that Matters. For example, the small cast iron frying…
  9. … (w) is the process of causing Matter to move against an opposing force. For…
  10. … from the hotter to the cooler Matter. (c) The two objects reach “thermal equilibrium”…

Calorimetry Part 1

  1. … is determined by whether the Matter in question gains or loses heat, per definition).…
  2. … and its surroundings (all other Matter, including components of the measurement…

Enthalpy Part 1

  1. … represent the changes in both Matter and energy. In a thermochemical equation,…

Entropy

  1. … net increase in dispersal of Matter
  2. … solution, decreased dispersal of Matter
  3. … confirmed to be the one in which the Matter is most uniformly dispersed or distributed…
  4. … between entropy, microstates, and Matter/energy dispersal described previously…
  5. This Matter dispersal model of entropy is often described qualitatively in terms…
  6. … the various contributions of Matter and energy dispersal that contribute to…
  7. … to a more uniform dispersal of Matter and energy and a greater number of microstates.…

Gibb's Free Energy

  1. … yields a much lesser dispersal of Matter, since the molecules will occupy a…
  2. … greater, more uniform dispersal of Matter that results when the gas is allowed…
  3. … yields a much greater dispersal of Matter, since the molecules will occupy a…
  4. … yields a more uniform dispersal of Matter, since the initial state of the system…
  5. … dispersal or distribution of Matter and/or energy. In each case, a spontaneous…
  6. Dispersal of Matter and Energy
  7. Redistribution of Matter during a Spontaneous Process

Space

Matter

  1. … orientations of the atoms in Space can be different. For example, the compound…
  2. … defined as anything that occupies Space and has mass, and it is all around…
  3. … atomic sizes not to scale, and a Space-filling model shows the relative sizes…
  4. … ball-and-stick model, and (c) a Space-filling model. (d) Benzene is a clear…
  5. … ball-and-stick model, and (c) a Space-filling model. Sulfur atoms are represented…
  6. … ball-and-stick model, and (d) a Space-filling model. Carbon and hydrogen atoms…
  7. … orientations of the atoms in Space. (credit bottom left: modification of work…

Measurement

  1. … boiling temperature of water. The Space between the two temperatures is divided…
  2. … the measure of the amount of Space occupied by an object. The standard SI unit…

The Atom

  1. … traveled through essentially empty Space inside the atom. Alpha particles are…
  2. … surrounded by a much larger volume of Space containing negatively charged electrons.…

Light

  1. … transport energy from one point in Space to another. Common examples of waves…
  2. … constrained within some region of Space. As we shall see, standing waves play…
  3. … that pass a specified point in Space in a specified amount of time (in the…
  4. … that was thought to permeate all Space. Early in the nineteenth century, Thomas…
  5. … wavelengths are comparable to the Spaces between atoms in a crystalline solid,…
  6. … through narrow slits closely Spaced about a wavelength apart. The fringe patterns…
  7. … light passing through two closely Spaced, narrow slits. The spacing of the…

Orbitals & Quantum Numbers

  1. … pattern in a crystal. The regularly Spaced atomic layers served as slits, as…
  2. … electron in the three-dimensional Space around the nucleus and is based on…
  3. … orientation of the orbital in Space, as can be seen in Figure 10.6.
  4. … also define in what part of the Space an electron is most likely to be located.…
  5. … present near a certain location in Space. This means that wavefunctions can…
  6. … but, rather, pairs of closely Spaced lines. This is the so-called fine structure…
  7. … passing through very closely Spaced slits demonstrates that quantum particles…

Electron Configurations

  1. … electron fills the remaining Space in the 2s orbital.

Periodic Trends

  1. … are being added to a region of Space that is increasingly distant from the…
  2. … considerably larger region of Space and the electron–electron repulsions…

Bonding

  1. … atomic nuclei, occupying the Space around both atoms. The strong attraction…

Lewis Structures Part 1

  1. … been discovered in interstellar Space.

Molecular Shape

  1. … pairs occupy larger regions of Space than do bonding electrons. The H–N–H…
  2. … equatorial position has more Space available because of the 120° bond angles.…
  3. … and an order of the amount of Space occupied by different kinds of electron…
  4. … and relative arrangements in Space (Figure 17.1). A bond angle is the angle…
  5. … repulsions determines the amount of Space occupied by different regions of…
  6. … by VSEPR theory maximize the Space around any region of electron density (bonds…
  7. … pair takes up a larger region of Space than do the single bonds, causing the…

Polarity

  1. … moments in three-dimensional Space, taking into account the molecular structure.

Isomers

  1. … permanently in different places in Space) because of the presence of a rigid…
  2. … permanently in different places in Space) because of the presence of a rigid…
  3. … arrangement in three-dimensional Space about one tetrahedral, sp3-hybridized…

Valence Bond Theory

  1. … Since lone pairs occupy more Space than bonding pairs, structures that contain…
  2. … orbital occupy the same region of Space. According to valence bond theory,…
  3. … electron pairs are close together in Space. However, for larger central atoms,…

Molecular Orbital Theory

  1. … (quantized) energies. The region of Space in which a valence electron in a…
  2. … orbitals in solids are so closely Spaced that they are described as bands.…

Combined & Ideal Gas Laws

  1. … equalization by adding air to body airSpaces on the descent by breathing normally…

Dalton's Law, Graham's Law, Henry's Law

  1. … almost 1313 is reflected back into Space, with the rest absorbed by the atmosphere…
  2. … by which molecules disperse in Space in response to differences in concentration…
  3. … dispersal of molecules throughout Space due to their random motion. When this…

Kinetic Molecular Theory, Real Gases

  1. … together, and the amount of empty Space between the molecules is reduced. At…

Intermolecular Forces

  1. … intermolecular forces. (Note: The Space between particles in the gas phase…

Stoichiometry

  1. … upper half of Figure 31.1, with Space-filling molecular models shown in the…

% Composition, Empirical Formulas

  1. … orientations of the atoms in Space can be different. For example, the compound…
  2. … atomic sizes not to scale, and a Space-filling model shows the relative sizes…
  3. … ball-and-stick model, and (d) a Space-filling model. Carbon and hydrogen atoms…
  4. … orientations of the atoms in Space. (credit bottom left: modification of work…
  5. … ball-and-stick model, and (c) a Space-filling model. (d) Benzene is a clear…
  6. … ball-and-stick model, and (c) a Space-filling model. Sulfur atoms are represented…