• Introduction
  • Acknowledgements
  • 1. Groundwork
  • 2. Process
  • 2. Paradigms
  • 3. Learning Theories
  • 4. Methodology
  • 5. Data Collection
  • 5. Methods
  • 7. Reporting
  • Appendix A. Supplements
  • Appendix B. Example Studies
  • Appendix D. Software Examples
  • Appendix C. Historical Readings
  • Abstracts
  • Download
  • Endorsements
  • Front Matter
  • Search
  • Abstracts

    "Research" could reasonably be interpreted in a variety of ways. If the term "research" is applied to education in too broad a fashion, then anything can count as research. Such imprecision and willy-nilly use of the term makes the rigor and clout of research lose its sway.
    Epistemology, or the study of knowing, has been of philosophical interest for thousands of years. The concept of knowing is ingrained in our day-to-day lives, but there seem to be different types of knowing. This chapter will attempt to provide some groundwork regarding knowing that will be drawn upon in subsequent chapters.
    Most research studies in education require some form of sampling. Sampling means that you only study part of a larger group and (hopefully) are still able to draw meaningful conclusions. There is not a single, correct way to sample, but there are appropriate (and inappropriate) ways to sample depending on our study. This chapter provides an overview of common sampling strategies in three main categories: Convenience, Purposeful, Random, and Census.