• Academic A Writing
  • Objectives
  • The Writing Process
  • Introduction to Academic Essays
  • Process Essays
  • Comparison Essays
  • Problem/Solution Essays
  • Refining Writing
  • Writing A Summary
  • TOEFL Writing
  • Punctuation
  • Using Academic Vocabulary
  • Glossary
  • Answer Key
  • Download
  • Translations
  • Refining Writing AK


    1. Exercise: Ask questions to generate supportig sentences (Answers will vary, examples provided)
      1. People should travel abroad to learn more about other cultures.
      2. How do people learn about other cultures? They can experience new foods, different traditions, and see how other people live.
      3. Why is it important to learn about other cultures? It is important because we develop respect for others and we see the world differently.
    2. Exercise: Ask questions to generate supporting sentences (Answers will vary, examples provided)
      1. Who needs to learn how to set goals? What goals should we set? When do we need to set goals? Why do people set goals? How do we set goals? What is a good goal? What is the most effective process for setting a goal?
      2. Who should learn another language? What language should they learn? Why do people need to learn another language? How do people learn another language? When should they start learning another language? Does it matter where someone learns the new language? What are the benefits of learning another language? Why do people not learn another language?
        1. The world is full of many beautiful, interesting, and unique languages. In many large cities, you can hear people speaking these different languages and see them used in signs and advertisements. Because the world is becoming more and more connected, it is important for everyone to learn to communicate with one another. Learning to speak another language is a great way to create a connection with a new culture and community, and anyone can learn a new language. It takes patience and practice, but learning a new language improve your life and expand your world.
    3. Exercise: Eliminate redundancy to improve development
      1. Students who do not work may not have exactly all of the same stress that working students have, but they have other things to worry about. Some students need to plan a very careful budget in order to save as much money as they can and not spend too much money that they shouldn’t spend because they don’t have very much money to spend. Other students worry about maintaining very high grades so that their sponsor will see their diligence and allow them to continue studying. They spend a lot of time studying as much as possible and practicing the skills they learn in class so that they can do well on the exams and pass the exams and quizzes with very good scores. Passing the exams and quizzes is very important to them and so they spend a lot of time studying. This can cause significant stress in their lives. These are just some of the additional concerns students face when they are not working during the semester.


    1. Exercise: Revise for unity

      1. It is dangerous to preserve old buildings. According to some engineers, every building has a lifetime, and after the building reaches its lifetime, it is dangerous to keep those buildings. It also becomes more expensive. In addition, if the city is in a seismically active area, the problems that old buildings create will become worse because those buildings will not resist an earthquake. Some people say that old buildings can be used as tourist places and people enjoy visiting a historic location. It is clear that old buildings are not very safe. 
      2. There are many varieties of English spoken today in the world. American English British English, Indian English, and Australian English are just a few of these varieties, and they are all a little distinct. Pronunciation is one obvious difference, but other things vary as well, like vocabulary and even grammar. The word shiela is the Australian word for girl. English may be a global language, but it isn’t exactly the same all over the world. 
      3. The environment is something that can affect students positively or negatively. For example, if classmates are sleeping or talking during classes, that environment can make it difficult for students to concentrate. A noisy, dirty, or distracting environment can have a similar impact. Some roommates never help clean the apartment. On the contrary, an environment that is clean and has no distractions will make it much easier to focus on homework. It is important to recognize the impact that the environment can have on students. 
      4. Students like to listen to music in many different situations. Students listen to different types of music. Many students listen to music while they are studying because it helps them concentrate. Some people like to be quiet while they study. Some students listen to music while they work. Some enjoy listening to music while they walk to work or school. There are many different places where students enjoy listening to music.


    1. Exercise: identify logical order of sentences
      1. 5
      2. 1
      3. 3
      4. 6
      5. 7
      6. 2
      7. 8
    2. Exercise: Insert a sentence
      1. French toast is another breakfast food that is easy to make.2 Make an egg mixture by cracking a few eggs into a bowl and stirring in some milk. Season the mixture with cinnamon. To prepare the toast, quickly dip a slice of bread into the mixture and put it on a hot pan to cook. When the toast has turned light brown, it’s ready to eat. You can top the toast with butter, syrup, and powdered sugar. Making French toast is as easy as that!
    3. Exercise: Revise for logical order of sentences
      1. Reading is a popular hobby for people of many ages. Children often enjoy reading for entertainment. Other adults enjoy reading because they have found specific authors or genres that move them and they can create a connection with the story. Teenagers enjoy reading as a hobby because they are able to learn about other places and cultures by reading about them. Little children may also enjoy reading because they enjoy spending time with their parents. Young adults may enjoy reading for a hobby because it can help them socialize with other young adults who are reading the same stories. Some adults read to relax after a long day at work. It is obvious that reading is such a popular hobby due to the reasons people of all ages choose to read.
      2. However, reading is more than a hobby; it is also a great tool for eduction. If people want to learn new skills, they can learn about those skills in books. If people want to understand history, they can learn it in a book. If they want to learn how scientific processes occur, there are books that can explain them. The education you can gain from a book can include skills, history, science, and even how to succeed in business. If people want to learn about successful business practices, there are also books that can teach about that topic. Reading can open the door to learn many new things.
      3. Reading stories that were written by people from a different culture helps the reader understand that culture better. The culture of a group of people includes their beliefs and traditions, which are frequently included in the stories they write. For example, many people have written stories to teach a lesson that shows the importance of a certain characteristic. The Little Red Hen is one such story in American culture. Many other cultures have similar types of stories that show pieces of their cultures. This story teaches the value of hard work, which is traditionally valued highly in America. Thus, by reading, people can learn more about other cultures. 
    4. Exercise: Add cohesive devices
      1. FIRST students need to learn English.

      2. Other types of English exams include a written grammar test to measure students’ knowledge of grammar. HOWEVER/IN CONTRAST the TOEFL uses a different grammar assessment. 

      3. SECOND/IN ADDITION/ALSO, learning the format of the test is essential.

      4. You should ALSO be familiar with the types of questions you will be asked.

      5. ANOTHER element of the format you should be familiar with is how the test will be scored.

      6. FOR INSTANCE, there are some questions on the reading section that are worth two points instead of one point

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